The Trail History and Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions – The Indian National Movement (1917-1934)
The Trail History and Civics for Class 8 ICSE Answers
A. Fill in the blanks:
- Gandhi spent about 22 years in South Africa as a practicing lawyer.
- Under Gandhiji leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into a mass movement.
- To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in the year 1919.
- After the British brutalities in Amritsar, Gandhiji declared that it would be a sin to co-operate with the satanic government.
- At the Lahore session of the Congress in 1929, Poorna Swaraj. was declared as its goal.
B. Match the following:
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. Gandhiji studied law in England/South Africa/France.
Ans. Gandhiji studied law in England.
2. Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in Ahmedabad/Kheda/Champaran.
Ans. Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in Ahmedabad.
3. The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920/1930/1940.
Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920.
4. A resolution declaring ‘Poorns Swaraj was declared as its goal at the Lahore/Surat/Bombay session of the Congress.
Ans. A resolution declaring ‘Pooms Swaraj was declared as its goal at the Lahore session of the Congress.
5. The Non-Copperation Movement/Civil Disobedience Movement/ Quit India Movement was started with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was started with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
- Gandhiji did not have faith in the capacity of the common masses.
False. Gandhiji have immense faith in the capacity of the common masses.
- In 1919, General Dyer had issued an order banning all public meetings.
- The Non-Cooperation Movement had ended in failure after the Chauri Chaura incident
- Independence Day was celebrated on 26 January in 1930.
- Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of the Civil disobedience Movement.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
What technique of resistance did Gandhji evolve in South Africa? What was its basic principle ?
Gandhiji became the leader of a struggle against racial injustice in South Africa. During the struggle, he evolved a technique known as satyagraha which was later applied to the Indian National Movement.
Why did Gandhiji lead campaigns in
(b) Kheda ?
Champaran — Gandhiji championed the cause of the tenant farmers of Champaran district against the oppression of the British indigo planters. The movement was a success and the peasants received compensation.
Kheda — Gandhiji advised and convinced the cultivators of Kheda district to stop paying land revenue to the government because the crops had failed. The peasant’s demand for remission of land tax was accepted by the government.
Which incident marked the end of the Non-Cooperation Movement and when?
The Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 marked an end of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Under whose leadership was the Lahore session of the Congress held in 1929? What resolution was passed in this session?
In December 1929, the Indian National Congress met in Lahore under the youthfiil and dynamic leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Congress passed a resolution declaring ‘Pooma Swaraj’ or ‘Complete Independence’ as its goal. 26 January 1930 was fixed as ‘Independence Day’.
What do you understand by the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Civil Disobedience Movement was a form of non-cooperation involving the breaking of government laws. Its objective was to defy the british government and pressurize it to give in to the demands of the nationalists.
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
With reference to Gandhiji, discuss his views on the following issues:
- Truth and non-violence
- Hindu-Muslim unity
- Social justice
Satyagraha is a combination of two Sanskrit words-satya (truth) and agraha (eagerness). Satyagraha is based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.
A satyagrahi was one who firmly believed in truth and nonviolence and who would resist evil at all costs. A satyagrahi was peaceful, fearless and strong. He/She would have evil but not the ‘evil doer’. In the fight for justice and truth, the satyagrahi would willingly accept suffering and be ready to make sacrifices.
The suffering and patience of the satyagrahi was expected to bring about a change of heart in the enemy. The idea behind satyagraha was not to destroy the enemy but the transform and enlighten him.
Gandhiji insisted on non-violent methods of struggle. He believed that non-violence was the weapon of the strong and could be effectively used to resist armed attacks by the enemy. A satyagrahi was expected to follow peaceful methods even under extreme provocation.
Gandhiji was a devout Hindu and a passionate believer in the equality of all religions. He was convinced that the path to India’s salvation lay in Hindu-Muslim unity. Gandhiji lived and died for the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity.
Gandhiji was a great believer in social justice. He championed the cause of the poof and the downtrodden, the emancipation of women and improvement of the conditions of the lower caste ‘untouchables’ whom he called ‘Harijans’, i.e., children of God. He worked tirelessly to remove prejudices and change the mindest of the people. He believed that political freedom was meaningless without social reforms.
In the context of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy, answer the following:
(a) Why was a public meeting held in Jallianwala Bagh on 13 April 1919?
(b) Why did the troops open fire on the gathering? What happened as a result of the shooting?
(c) How did the entire nation and Gandhiji react to the events in Amritsar?
The British government adopted the policy of repression to crush the anti-British movement against the repressive Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919. In some places, particularly in Punjab, the hartals led to violence.Two popular nationalist leaders were arrested in Amritsar.To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held on 13 April 1919 in an enclosed space known as Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his troops, blocked the only exit and ordered the troops to open fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh.
The people were unarmed and peaceful. Unfortunately, they were not aware of the fact that the military commander of Amritsar, General Dyer, had issued an order banning all public meetings.General Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his troops, blocked the only exit and ordered the troops to open fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh.The shooting continued till there was no ammunition left.Nearly 400 people were killed and over 1,000 were injured.
Martial law was proclaimed in Punjab. During this period, people were humiliated and tortured. The brutality of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the humiliation and inhuman treatment of the Indians that followed shocked the entire nation. Gandhiji was horrified. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a ‘sin’ to cooperate with the ‘Satanic’ government.
In the context of the Non-Cooperation Movement, answer the following questions:
(a) Discuss the programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(b) Why did Gandhiji abruptly suspend the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(c) State the significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(a) Programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement:
- Boycott of foreign goods.
- Boycott of government schools, colleges, law courts, legislatures and all British institutions.
- Boycott of elections and government functions.
- Renunciation of titles and honours awarded by the British.
Early in 1922, a procession of peasants were fired upon by the police at Chauri-Chaura a village in U.P. The people reacted violently and burnt down the Chauri-Chaura police station. Twenty-two policemen were killed. Gandhiji immediately called off the movement.
The Non-cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian struggle for freedom from British Rule. This movement which lasted from 1920 to 1922 was led by Mohandas Gandhi and supported by the Indian National Congress. It aimed to resist British occupation of India through non-violent means. Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and try to uphold the values of Indian honour and integrity. The Gandhian ideals of ahimsa or non-violence, and his ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens toward the cause of Indian Independence, were first seen on a large scale in this movement.
In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, answer the following:
(a) Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha.
(b) How did the government react to the movement?
(c) What impact did the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) have on the nation?
The Salt Satyagraha began with the historic Dandi March.Gandhiji set out from Sabarmati Ashram with 78 followers, on a 385-km journey to the coastal village of Dandi. Thousands of people joined him on the way. On his arrival in Dandi, he picked up a handful of salt from the beach. This act symbolized defiance of the salt law. It was a signal for every Indian to violate the salt law. Throughout India, people began to manufacture salt and sell if openly.
The goverment suppressed the movement with force and brutality, Gandhiji, Nehru and all other important leaders were arrested. Hundreds of people were injured or killed in lathi charges and police firing. Over 90,000 people were imprisoned.
Civil Disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil Disobedience is usually but not always, defined as being non-violent resistance. Civil Disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against what they deem to be unfair laws. It has been used in many well-documented nonviolent resistance movement in India.
G Picture study:
This is the picture of an Indian leader who was known as the ‘Father of the Nation’,
Identify the person.
What method did he use in the Indian struggle for freedom?
Gandhiji used ‘Satyagraha in the Indian struggle for freedom.Satyagraha is based on the twin principal of truth and non violence.
What are the principles on which his method is based?
Gandhiji Method of Struggle ‘Satyagraha’ is a combination of two Sanskrit words: satya (truth) and agraha (eagerness). It is based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence. The suffering and patience of the satyagrahi was expected to bring about a change of heart in the enemy. The idea behind satyagraha was not to destroy the enemy but to transform and enlighten him.
Why is he called the leader of the masses?
Gandhiji had immense faith in the capacity of the common people to struggle against oppression. Under his leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into a mass movement.
Mention the features of his non-violent struggle against the British.
- Peaceful demonstration
- Defiance of unjust British laws
- Boycott of British goods, institutions and services.
- The use of the charkha and khadi to promote self-reliance and the swadeshi spirit.
- Non-payment of the oppressive taxes. The idea was to bring the government to a standstill.