ICSE History and Civics Previous Year Question Paper 2008 Solved for Class 10
ICSE Paper 2008
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Mention one advantage of the Lok Sabha. 
(b) What is meant by the term Universal Adult Franchise ? 
(c) What is the term of office of a Rajya Sabha member ? 
(d) What is meant by a constituency ? 
(e) Who administers the oath of office to the President of India ? 
(f) How many members can the Governor nominate to the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council ? 
(g) Mention one difference in the election of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha members as far as the electorate is concerned. 
(h) Mr. Dakaria, the Governor of Nagaland, wants to implement some administrative reforms in the tribal areas of his State. Can he do so ? If so, which constitutional power will allow him to implement the reforms ? 
(i) Under what circumstances can the salaries and allowances of the Judges of the Supreme Court be reduced ? 
(j) Name the writ issued by the High Court which provides a remedy for a person who has been unlawfully detained in prison. 
(a) Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people therefore it is the Lok Sabha that becomes the mirror and voice of the nation.
(b) Universal adult franchise means that every person who has attained the age of 18 years is entitled to vote if he is not otherwise disqualified.
(c) The members of the Rajya Sabha have a six years term.
(d) A parliamentary constituency is a well defined territorial area which is called upon to elect someone to represent it in the Lok Sabha. At present numbers of the Lok Sabha are elected by 543 single member constituencies.
(e) The Chief Justice of India.
(f) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(g) Representatives of each state in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the each state while in Lok Sabha, the House is constituted by direct election on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise.
(h) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(i) The salaries and allowances of the judges of the Supreme Court can be reduced only when there is Financial Emergency in the country.
(j) Habeas Corpus.
(a) Mention two acts against which Surendra Nath Banerjee protested. 
(b) Name two fore-runners of the Indian National Congress. 
(c) Name the Congress leader who died after being assaulted by the British in his demonstration against the Simon Commission. Mention one consequence of the protest against the Simon Commission’s recommendation. 
(d) On what assurances did Gandhiji withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement? 
(e) How was the army reorganized after the first war of Indian Independence ? 
(f) Name the last Viceroy of India. State one of his proposals in regard to the Princely States. 
(g) Why was the Berlin Blockade enforced by Russia ? On what condition under the Berlin Accord, were the citizens of West berlin allowed the privilege of visiting Eastern Berlin ? 
(h) Mention two proposals of the Wavell Plan. 
(i) Mention any two aims of the League of Nations. 
(j) What was the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis ? Why did Hitler demand the Danzig Corridor from Poland ? 
(a) Arms act and Vernacular Press Act.
(b) Dadabhai Naoroji and Surendra Nath Banarjee.
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai.
The main consequence of the protest was Lala Lajpat Rai’s death on 17 Nov., 1928 as he sustained injuries from which he could not recover.
(d) Gandhiji withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement on following assurances:
(i) to release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence.
(ii) to withdraw the Ordinances promulgated in connection with the civil disobedience Movement.
(e) In South-east Asia Indian soldiers fell prisoners into Japanese hands. During this period Britain’s defeats aroused great hopes among Indian soldiers which led to the formation of the Indian Independence League by Rash Bihari Bose, an old revolutionary who was living in Japan. At Tokyo conference a decision taken to form an Indian National Army.
(f) Lord Mountbatten.
- The treaties with the princely States would come to end.
- They would be free to associate themselves with either of the Dominions or to remain independent.
(g) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(h) Two proposals of the Wavell plan are as follows:
- The British Government will grant Dominion status to India in the long run.
- The constitution of India would be framed by the Indians themselves.
(i) Two aims of the League of Nations:
- The protection of national minorities
- The proper operation of the Mandate system.
(j) The Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis was a military alliance formed in 1939. It was also referred to as the Axis Powers. This alliance went to war with the Allied Forces during World War II.
Hitler was demanding corridor for two reasons:
- The city of Danzig was inhabited mainly by the Germans.
- By occupying the Danzig Corridor, he could connect East Russia with Germany.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
With reference to the Parliament and the State Legislature answer the following:
(a) Mention the judicial powers of the Parliament. 
(b) Mention three powers which are common to both houses of the State Legislature. 
(c) Explain any four functions of the Union Cabinet. 
(a) Judicial Powers of the Parliament:
- The President can be removed from his office by Impeachment.
- A Judge of the Supreme Court or of the High Court cannot be removed by the President, except on a joint address by both Houses.
- The Parliament may punish a person for obstructing the work of Parliament or showing disrespect for the House.
(b) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(c) Four functions of Union Cabinet:
(i) Formulation of Policies of Government:
- The cabinet formulates external and domestic policies of the Government, such as Defence, Economic Policies, Security needs, President’s Rule in state, formation of new states, industrial policy and imports.
- Once the policy is made by the Cabinet Ministers, the Ministers concerned cares it out either by administrative action or by drafting a Bill and piloting it through the Legislature.
It co-ordinates the working of various departments for the smooth implementation of policy.
(ii) Legislative Functions: In the Parliamentary system cabinet has an important role in the field of Legislation. It is regarded as a instrument which links executive wing of Government to the Legislative. It performs the following Legislative functions :
- The Cabinet guides the Parliament for action.
- It prepares the Legislative programme of the Parliament.
- It prepares the drafts of Bills and initiates them in the Parliament.
- It fixes dates for holding the sessions of Parliament.
- It recommends to the President the promulgation of ordinances when Parliament is not in session.
- It can move Constitutional Amendments.
- It decides the dissolution of the Parliament.
(iii) Co-ordination in the Functioning of various Ministers: The cabinet co-ordinates the working of various departments, which are involved in the formulation and implementation of policies of eradicating unemployment or a cut in Government spending or improving the management of public enterprises. The Cabinet acts as the co-ordinator between various departments.
(iv) Financial Functions: The cabinet is responsible for whole of expenditure of Government and for raising necessary revenues to meet it. The cabinet can examine the budget proposals after they have been presented to parliament and may also suggest suitable modification.
With reference to the Executive of the State Government, answer the following:
(a) Mention the three financial powers of the Governor of a State. 
(b) Mention three executive powers of the Governor of a State. 
(c) Under what circumstances can the Governor of a State dismiss the Council of Ministers and dissolve the Legislative Assembly ? What is meant by the Governor’s Address ? 
Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
With reference to the Judiciary, answer the following:
(a) Mention three cases in which the High Court enjoys original jurisdiction. 
(b) Under which jurisdiction can a High Court accept an appeal against the decisions of the district courts ? Mention any two advantages of resolving disputes through the Lok Adalat. 
(c) Explain any four conditions of service of a Judge of a High Court. 
(a) The Original Jurisdiction extends to those cases which High Court has authority to hear and decide in the first instance. It has an Original Jurisdiction with respect to the following:
- The cases regarding wills, divorce, marriage, admirality, company law and contempt of court can be taken up by the High Court directly.
- The Constitutional cases could be taken up under the Original Jurisdiction of the High Court.
- The High Court has the power to issue writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
(b) High Court accept an appeal against the decisions of the district courts under Appellate Jurisdiction.
Advantages of resolving disputes through the Lok Adalat:
- The Lok Adalats work in the spirit of compromise. No one nourishes feelings of anger or uphappiness. Both the parties feel that they have been treated fairly.
- Lok Adalats deliver speedy and inexpensive justice. One can move Lok Adalat by an application on a plain paper or format available with legal services Authorities.
(c) The conditions of services of the High Court Judges are as follows:
- Term of office and Removal: Every judge of a High Court shall hold office until he attains the age of 65 years. He can be removed from office on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
- Oath of Office: A Judge of a High Court shall take an oath before the Governor of the state which requires him :
(1) to bear the faith and allegiance to the constitution of India.
(2) to perform the duties of his office without fear or favour affection or ill will.
(3) to uphold the constitution and the laws.
- Salary and Allowances: The salary of Chief Justice of High court is Rs. 30,000 per month and that of other judges Rs. 26,000 each. In addition to that the judges are entitled to rent free residence and other allowances.
- Transfer of Judges: The President may after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court.
Attempt any three questions from this section.
With reference to Nationalism, explain each of the following:
(a) Rediscovery of India’s past. 
(b) Contribution of Bipin Chandra Pal. 
(c) How did the British react when the Indian National Congress was founded ? Why did their attitude change later ? 
(a) (i) The British had projected the Indians as immatured and uncivilised.
(ii) British considered Indians were unfit to rule themselves. It made Indians to lose their sense of self confidence.
(iii) Just around this time European scholars rendered valuable help in restoring the rich heritage of Sanskrit Literature.
(iv) William Jones, Charles Wilking and Max Mueller rendered valuable help in restoring the rich heritage of Sanskrit Literature and threw open to the eastern world the magnificence of Indian philosophy and culture.
(v) The works of these scholars aroused nationalistic passions against foreign rulers.
(vi) Sir Alexander Cunningham’s excavations at Samath, Sanchi and other places brought to light the glory of the past. A feeling grew among Indians that they must build an Indian yet greater than what she has been.
(b) Bipin Chandra Pal was one of the Extremist trio of Lai, Bal and Pal.
- He joined the Congress in 1887 and made a forceful speech in Madras to repeal the Arms Act.
- He edited many newspapers including NEW INDIA which he started in 1901.
- During the Anti-Partition Movement he toured several parts of the country with the message of Boycott and Swadeshi.
- In Bande Mataram Sedition Case, Pal did not give testimony against . Aurobindo Ghose and preferred to serve Jail sentence.
- In 1918, Pal along with Tilak went to England as Members of Home Rule League.
- Bipin Chandra Pal did not support Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement and wanted some stern measures to be taken against the British rulers.
- He laid great stress on cultural unity than political unity.
Bipin Chandra Pal was a great thinker and fiery speaker. He gave fiery and inspiring lectures in Bengal So that the British gave him the title of ‘Arch seditionist’. He was popularly known as the “Father of Revolutionary Thought in India.”
(c) Initially the British welcomed the formation of Indian National Congress. In fact a retired British civil servant Mr. A.O. Hume was its founder. It was felt by the British rulers that the suppressed anger or popular demands of the Indians can be given a safe outlet through a political platform. This will prevent the recurrence of revolt from the Indians.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by Sir Henry Cotton, the chief secretary to the Government and Sir William Wedderbum of the civil services. The second session of I.N.C. was attended by Lord Dufferin, the Viceroy.
But the rising popularity of the Congress and the increasing demands of the Nationalists from the British rulers led to a change in the British policy towards the Congress. Gradually, the British government became indifferent to the meetings and demands of the Congress. Later it became hostile to Congress. All the British government servants were directed to keep distance from the activities of the Congress.
In 1887, Dufferin affected the Congress as a “Microscopic minority of the people” and called the demands of the Congress as “eminently unconstitutional”. The Indian National Congress was declared as a seditions body and official hurdles were created to obstruct its progress.
The formation of the Muslim League and the Home Rule Movement had a wholesome effect on the affairs of the country. In this context mention:
(a) Three factors leading to the formation of the Muslim League. 
(b) Any three aims of the Muslim League. 
(c) Two terms of the Lucknow Pact and two factors which emphasize the significance of the Home Rule Movement. 
(a) (i) After the revolt of 1857 and the partition of Bengal, the Britishers saw the unity between the Hindus and Muslims. To check the growth of nationalism, they encouraged the formation of Muslim League.
(ii) The working of Indian National Congress also gave a setback to the British government. They wanted to create an organisation which could check the popularity of the Congress.
(iii) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a great social reformer and an educationist. He worked as a guiding force for the Muslims to form a separate organisation.
(b) The aims of the Muslim league were:
- To promote feelings of loyalty among Indian Muslims towards the British Government.
- To protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and present them before the Government in mild language.
- To promote friendly feelings between Muslims and other communities of India without any harm to the objectives of the League.
- One of the main objectives of the Muslim League was to keep the Muslim intelligensia away from the mainstream of National Movement.
(c) Two Terms of the Lucknow Pact:
- The Indian council of the secretary of the state operating from England should be abolished.
- The minorities should have adequate separate representative in electric bodies.
Two Factors emphasizing the significance of the Home Rule Movement:
- The movement infused new life in the national movement and made Indians conscious of their rights.
- Participation of women in large numbers and the revival of the Swadeshi spirit.
With reference to the Indian National Army, answer the following questions:
(a) Explain three measures taken by Subhash Chandra Bose to establish a socialist society. 
(b) What were the three decisions taken at the Tokyo Conference ? 
(c) Explain any four contributions of Subhash Chandra Bose to the National Movement. 
(a) Three measures taken by Subhash Chandra to establish a socialist society are:
- State planning for the reorganization of agriculture and industry on socialist lines.
- Abolition of landlordism i.e., Zamindari system.
- A new monetary and credit system.
(b) At the Tokyo conference the following decisions were taken:
- To expand and strengthen the Indian Independence League.
- To form under the overall command of the League INA i.e., an army of Indian liberation.
- To hold a conference at Bangkok to consolidate these decisions.
(c) Contributions of Subhash Chandra Bose: Subhash Chandra Bose was a diehard Freedom fighter and a Nationalist.
- He started a new party called Forward Bloc by bringing all the left wing parties under one roof.
- He became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army raised in Sept. 1942 for getting freedom from British.
- He got full support from Japanese political and military leaders. He received the islands of Andaman and Nicobar from the Japanese and renamed them ‘Shaheed’ and ‘Swaraj’ respectively. The provisional government of India started functioning from his territory.
- He gave the call to his countrymen “You give me blood and I will give you Freedom”. He gave the clarion call to INA soldiers ‘Delhi Chalo’ as their ultimate destination.
Although INA lost the battle against the British yet it had kindled the flame of Independence among the Indians.
(a) Mention three functions of the International Court of Justice. 
(b) Explain the composition of the International Court of Justice. 
(c) Name the organization associated with the below emblem. Mention any three functions of the organization named by you. 
(a) Three Functions of the International Court of Justice.
- Voluntary Jurisdiction: Its jurisdiction covers all cases which the parties refer to it. One party alone may refer the dispute to the court. If the other party undertakes to defend itself in a case brought before it, the court interprets it as consent to the reference.
- Codification International Law: The court has played an important role in the codification of international law. It required a through examination of international conventions, International customs, Judicial decisions and General principles of law.
- Evolving Procedures for Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: At any stage of the dispute the court may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of settlement. It may also recommend terms of settlement.
(b) Composition of International Court of Justice:
- The court consists of 15 Judges each separately chosen by the security council and General Assembly of these, those 15 persons who are chosen by majority vote in both bodies are elected the judges of the court.
- The court elects its President and Vice President for a three year term. They may when their term expires be re-elected.
- The court has power to appoint its registrar.
(c) The emblem is associated with World Health Organisation (WHO).
Functions of W.H.O :
- It helps the countries to build-up infrastructure in health.
- It promotes research for developing new technologies in health, nutrition, maternal and child care etc.
- It provides safe drinking water.
- It organizes immunizations to prevent six major communicable diseases like Polio, Diphtheria, Measles, Tetanus, Tuberculosis and Whooping Cough.
- It prevents death among infants from diarrhoea.
- It trains medical personnel to tackle emergency situations in relation to health.
- It sets standards for many life saving drugs.
- It provides information and consultation on health matters and health, awareness.
With reference to the Cold War and the Non-Aligned Movement, answer the following:
(a) Mention three factors leading to the Cold War. 
(b) Write three consequences of the Cold War. 
(c) Mention any four objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement. 
(a) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(b) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(c) Objectives of NAM:
- To preserve the freedom of the new nations from colonial and alien dominations.
- To protect human rights and to protect the environment.
- To eliminate all causes leading to war and in particular to eliminate nuclear weapons.
- To promote freedom to pursue a free domestic and foreign policy.
- To settle international disputes in a peaceful manner.
- To promote equality among individuals as well as among nations and to condemn all forms of discrimination especially the racial discrimination.
- To ensure a safer and peaceful world and to afford new opportunities in the development of one’s own country without endangering world peace. .
- To help the United Nations to be strong and effective.
- To save the new nations from falling by preying to the supremacy of the Super Powers.
- To establish a just economic order in order to bridge the gulf between the poor and the rich. (any four)