Class 9th ICSE Biology Solutions Chapter 10 Nutrition

Progress Check

Question 1.
Define malnutrition ………………..
Malnutrition is the condition in which a person suffers due to lack or deficiency of one or more essential elements of food.

Question 2.
Categorise the following items into carbohydrates and proteins :
(i) Cellulose ………………
(ii) Starch ……………..
(iii) Egg albumen ………………
(iv) Milk ……………….
(v) Pea ……………..
(vi) Glycogen. ………………
(vii) Cane-sugar …………………….
Carbohydrates Proteins
(i) Cellulose III. Egg albumen
(ii) Starch IV. Milk
(vi) Glycogen V. Pea
(vii) Cane-sugar.

Question 3.
What is the approximate requirement of calories for the following :
(i) An adult physical labourer …………………
An adult physical labourer – 3500 Calories.

(ii) An active child of about six years ……………….
active child of about six year – 1100 Calories.

(iii) An adult woman at complete rest …………………
adult woman at complete rest – 1450 Calories.

Review Questions

A. Multiple Choice Type

Question 1.
Which one of the following pairs of nutrients includes both as simple sugars (monosaccharides)?
(a) Sucrose and glucose
(b) Glucose and maltose
(c) Fructose and glucose
(d) Maltose and lactose
(c) Fructose and glucose

Question 2.
Which one of the following is the correct matching of a nutrient mineral element and its one rich source?
(a) Calcium – Potato
(b) Sodium – Citruis fruits
(c) Iodine – Dairy milk
(d) Potassium – Banana
(d) Potassium – Banana

Question 3.
Marasmus is due to deficiency of :
(a) Vitamin C
(b) Carbohydrates
(c) Fat
(d) Food
(b) Carbohydrates

Question 4.
Fat soluble vitamins are:
(a) A, D and E

Question 5.
Which of the following is the best source of Vitamin A:
(a) Apple
(b) Honey
(c) Carrot
(d) Peanuts
(c) Carrot

Question 6.
Ascorbic acid is Vitamin:
(a) B
(b) D
(c) B
(d) A
(a) B

B. Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F)
(a) Cellulose in our food passes out undigestad. (T/F)
(b) Kwashiorkor is a severe vitamin deficiency disease. (T/F)
(c) Iron is required for the proper working of thyroid. (T/F)
(d) Foods protect us from disease and therefore antibioties which protect us from disease are also foods. (T/F)
(e) Mineral salts contribute in regulating body processes. (T/F)
(a) True,
(b) False,
(c) False,
(d) False,
(e) True.

Question 2.
Name the mineral element that is needed for the following respectively : (i) Strong teeth
(ii) Proper working of thyroid
(iii) Synthesis of haemoglobin
(i) Calcium and phosphorus,
(ii) Iodine,
(iii) Iron

Question 3.
Name the nutrients whose deficiencies cause the following diseases in humans :
(i) Pernicious anemia
(ii) Pellagra
(iii) Night blindness
(iv) Goitre
(v) kwashiorkor
(i) Cobalt,
(ii) Vitamin B3,
(iii) Vitamin A (Retinol)
(iv) Iodine,
(v) Proteins.

Question 4.
Mark the odd one out in each of the following cases and name the category to which the others belong :
(i) Xerophthalmia, Marasmus, Pellagra, Scurvy.
(ii) Riboflavin, Thiamine, Folic acid, Iodine.
(i) Marasmus : As it is a disease caused by deficiency of protein and other due to deficiency of vitamins.
(ii) Iodine : As it is a mineral and others are vitmains.

C. Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Give two examples each of the following and their 1 usefulness, if any, in our body.
(i) Monosaccharides,
(ii) Disaccharides,
(iii) Polysaccharides.
(i) Monosaccharides simple sugar i.e. glucose found in organism and fructose in plant and galactose in the milk is known as monosaccharides (C6H12O6). These are soluble in cold water.

(ii) Disaccharides double sugar which requires digestion e.g. sucrose, maltose and lactose. Its chemical formula is
C12 H22O11

(iii) Polysaccharides an insoluble carbohydrate stored in plants like potatoes, maize and barley etc. It is also known as a starch. Its chemical formula is C6H10 O5

Question 2.
Define and give one example of a balanced diet
A balanced diet is one which contains all the principal constituents of food in proper quantity.
A balanced diet is the sufficient number of calories which it will provide. A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.

Category of people – Requirement of Kcal/day
An adult labourer – 3500
A clerk – 1800 – 2500
A child (about 6 years) – 1100
An adult lying at rest – 1600
A woman at complete rest – 1450

Question 3.
A doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food. Why so?
Bones are generally made up calcium and iron and milk and milk products are rich in calcium. Milk is very good source of calcium and vitamin A. Calcium is needed for making the bones strong. In children it is very useful for the bones and for the teeth.

After menopause in the ladies the bones become very weak and brittle so they need milk to complete the deficiency of calcium. Milk also prevents oxidation of vitamin – A Milk is very useful for the young land the old persons. The fibrins which makes the clothing

of blood as a result of injury on the body. Calcium is helpful for the clotting of blood.

D. Long Answer Type

Question 1.
List the six main purposes for which food is required by the body.
All living organisms require food. It is needed for six main purposes.

  1. Growth : Building up new protoplasm or cells for growth.
  2. Repair : Providing material for the repair of wom-out or injured cells.
  3. Energy : Providing energy needed by the body to carry out various life functions.
  4. Maintenance of chemical composition of cells.
  5. Raw materials for the manufacture of various secretions such as enzymes, hormones, sweat, milk etc.
  6. Protection from disease and infection.

Question 2.
Why are proteins necessary in our food? Name one protein deficiency disease of young children.
Proteins are necessary in our food because they provide chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. In the time of emergency they may also be oxidised to release energy.
Deficiency disease in young children is Kwashiorkor.

Question 3.
Taking the examples of whole grain atta, fruit and green leafy vegetables, describe how roughage in our diet is useful.
Gram atta, fruits, green leafy vegetables, seeds and grains are in roughage. Large part of roughage are the fibres which are formed of cellulose. The roughage makes the food to pass through the intestine. The roughage stimulate the digestive tract to release secretions which removes the cholesterol (Fatty substance) and other toxins.

Fibres absorb lot of water and thus constipation can be avoided by taking lot of roughage in the food. Fruits should be taken as a whole along with the seeds as in case of Guava are more useful to the body and also provide roughage. The movement of the faecal matter becomes easy as it stimulates the muscle contraction in the intestine wall.

E. Structured/Application/Skill Type

Question 1.
Given below is an incomplete table of vitamins, their rich sources and deficiency diseases. Fill up the blank [(i)-(vj7/)] with only one suitable word for each.
ICSE Class 9 Biology Solutions Chapter 10 Nutrition 1
ICSE Class 9 Biology Solutions Chapter 10 Nutrition 2

Question 2.
Complete the following table by filling the blanks.
Mineral – Function – Rich Source
Iodine ………….. …………..
………….. Formation of …………….
………….. Haemoglobin …………..
Calcium ………….. …………..
Potassium ………….. …………..
ICSE Class 9 Biology Solutions Chapter 10 Nutrition 3

Additional Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by nutrition?
NUTRITION : “Complex process of ingesting, digesting, absorbing and assimilating the food is called NUTRITION.”

Question 2.
State the role of nutrients in our body.
Role of nutrients in our body :

  • They help regulate the body processes.
  • They serve as fuel to provide energy.
  • They provide materials for building, repairing or maintain-ing body tissues.

Question 3.
(i) What is a balanced diet?
(ii) Explain the role of roughage in our diet.
“The diet which contains correct ‘ amounts of all the essential nutrients required for the normal growth and development of the body is called a BALANCED DIET.”

(ii) ROLE OF ROUGHAGE in our diet.
(a) It makes our digestive system strong.
(b) Roughage helps in the excretion of cholesterol and toxic metabolites.
(c) It makes bulk of the food and stimulates PERISTALSIS that helps the food to keep on cleaning the alimentary canal.
(d) It helps relieve constipation.

Question 4.
Give two examples each of foods rich in the following :
(i) Fats
(ii) Carbohydrates
(iii) Proteins
Two examples of food rich in :
(i) Fats are oil, ghee, meat.
(ii) Carbohydrates are wheat, potato, rice.
(iii) Proteins are milk, meat, egg white.

Question 5.
Name the vitamin, the lack of which leads to the following disease/disorder :
(i) Pernicious anaemia
(ii) Oesteomalacia
(iii) Pellagra
(iv) Xerophthalmia
(v) Rickets
(vi) Macrocytic anaemia
(vii) Scurvy
(viii) Beri-beri
(i) B12
(ii) Vitamin D
(iii) Niacin B5
(iv) Retinal [Vitamin A]
(v) Vitamin D
(vi) Folic acid ,
(vii) Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
(viii) Thiamine [Vitamin B],

Question 6.
(a) What is a balanced diet?
(b) In what ways is a balanced diet beneficial?
(a) “Diet containing appropriate amount of nutrients ac¬cording to age, sex and nature of work is called a BALANCED DIET.”
(b) A balanced diet ensures :

  1. The ability to resist diseases.
  2. An increased work capacity.
  3. A normal mental and physical status.

Question 7.
(a) What is roughage?
(b) Explain the importance of roughage in our diet.
(a) “The indigestible portion of the food consisting largely of plant cellulose and having no food value is called ROUGHAGE.”


  1.  It makes the digestive system strong.
  2. It removes epetite i.e. belly filling.
  3. It helps in excretion of cholesterol and toxic metabo¬lites.
  4. Being fibrous gives body water content.

Question 8.
Give two examples of each :
(i) Energy-rich foods :
(ii) Body-building foods :
(iii) Protective foods :
(i) Wheat, rice (carbohydrates) : Oil, Ghee [Fat]
(ii) Milk, meat : gram, peas (Proteins)
(iii) Vitamins (fruits) : Minerals (Vegetables)

Question 9.
(a) State the importance of minerals in our body.
(b) State one use of the following minerals in our body.
(i) Calcium :
(ii) Fluorine :
(iii) Iodine :
(iv) Zinc :
(v) Iron :
(c) Name the disease caused due to the deficiency of the fol-lowing minerals in our diet.
(i) Iodine :
(ii) Iron :
(d) Name two food sources rich in the following minerals :
(i) Potassium :
(ii) Calcium :
(iii) Sulphur :
(iv) Phosphorus :
(v) Iron :
(vi) Iodine :

  • for forming bones, teeth, blood cells.
  • Regulating body fluids.
  • Assisting in ‘.the chemical reactions of the cells.

(b) (i) Formation of bones and teeth.
(ii) Protects teeth from decay.
(iii) for Synthesising, Thyroxin, a thyroid hormone which controls all metabolic growth and development.
(iv) Needed for synthesis of enzymes.
(v) is needed for synthesis of HAEMOGLOBIN.

(c) (i) deficiency causes GOITRE
(ii) deficiency causes ANAEMIA

(d) (i) Bananas, Potatoes
(ii) Milk, Eggs
(iii) Onion, Radish
(iv) Meat, Peas
(v) Banana, Spinach
(vi) Sea food, Iodised Salt.

Question 10.
(a)JWhy is it important to include adequate vitamins in our diet?
(b) Match the vitamins in column A with the associated disease/disorder given in column B.
A – B
(i) Vitamin A (a) Rickets
(ii) Thiamine (b) Scurvy
(iii) Folic acid (c) Pellagra
(iv) Vitamin C (d) Pernicious anaemia
(v) Vitamin D (e) Haemorrhage
(vi) Vitamin E (f) Beri-beri
(vii) Niacin (g) Xerophthalmia
(viii) Riboflavin (h) Sterility in rats
(ix) Pyridoxine (i) Cracking of lips
(x) Vitamin K (j) Epilepsy
(a) Vitamins are not energy giving but needed in very small „ amount.
1. To regulate the nervous system.
2. To process other nutrients.
3. To form genetic materials, proteins, RBCS and hormones.

(i) Vitamin A (g) Xerophthalmia
(ii) Thiamine (f) Beri-beri
(iii) Folic acid (d) Pernicious anaemia
(iv)Vitamin C (b) Scurvy
(v) Vitamin D (a) Rickets
(vi) Vitamin E (h) Sterility in rats
(vii)Niacin (c) Pellagra
(viii) Riboflavin (i) Cracking of lips
(ix) Pyridoxine (j) Epilepsy
(x) Vitamin K (e) Haemorrhage

Question 11.
State the mode oftransmission of the following diseases :
(i) AIDS :
(ii) Mumps :
(iii) Poliomyelitis :
(iv) Rabies :
(v) Jaundice :
(vi) Common cold :
(vii) Cholera :
(viii) Tuberculosis :
(ix) Diphtheria :
(x) Syphilis :
(i) AIDS : Virus : By Sexual contact, blood transfusion.
Spreads the virus known as HIV.

(ii) Mumps : Virus : Person to person contact.

(iii) Poliomyelitis : Virus : Spread by secretions of nose, throat, and excreta. Incubates in the intestine and reaches the brain through blood stream.

(iv) Rabies : Virus : A canine disease. Transmitted to humans by the bite of mad dog (Saliva contains virus).

(v) Jaundice : Virus : Exposed unhygienic food and fluids.

(vi) Common cold : Virus : Through moisture droplets released by infected during sneezing and coughing. Contact with personal articles soiled by nasal discharge.

(vii) Cholera : Bacteria : Caused by bacteria vibrio comma, transmitted through food water which are contaminated by dust and flies.

(viii) Tuberculosis : Bacteria : Mycobacterium tuberculosis rodshaped bacteria spread by air, dust, sputum of infected person.

(ix) Diphtheria : Bacteria : Discharge from the throat of infected person by sneezing, coughing.

(x) Syphilis : Bacteria : Sexual contact with infected person.

Question 12.
State the main characteristics of the following fungal diseases:
(i) Athlete’s foot:
(ii) Ringworm :
(iii) Thrush :
(i) This is a common infection between the toes. The infected skin becomes white and peels off to reveal a red raw area. Infected skin causes itching, blisters and cracking.

(ii) Ring-shaped lesions appear on the skin, especially of the scalp and nails. The affected area becomes discoloured and is covered by scales and vesicles.

(iii) White patches appear on the throat, tongue, lips and palate in young children. Causes vaginal infestation in women.

Question 13.
(a) How is amoebic dysentery caused?
(b) Name the vector through which the disease spreads.
(c) Mention three measures that can be taken to control the breeding of the named vector.
(a) Entamoeba hystolytica resides in large intestinal wall and destroys the wall.

(b) Contaminated food and flies are the vectors.


  • In villages, garbage should be spread in fields so that it dries up quickly to prevent egg-laying.
  • Lime should be added to manure to prevent egg laying.
  • Garbage and refuse should be kept in closed dust bins and then should be buried or treated with insecticides.

ICSE Class 9 Biology Solutions

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