The Trail History and Civics for Class 8 ICSE Solutions – The industrial Revolution and the Rise of Imperialism
The Trail History and Civics for Class 8 ICSE Answers
A. Fill in the blanks:
- Surplus capital and stable government are the two basic resources essential for industrial growth.
- Colonies were used as suppliers of cheap raw material and ready markers for finished products.
- Socialism was a reaction to the evils of capitalism.
- Women and small children were employed in large numbers in dangerous coal mines.
- Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French and the English established colonies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
B. Match the following:
C. Choose the correct answer:
The main occupation of the Europeans in the Medieval Age was agriculture/mining/fishing.
The main occupation of the Europeans in the Medieval Age was agriculture.
James Watt invented the Steam Engine/Safety Lamp/Power Loom.
James Watt invented the Steam Engine.
The first Asian country to become industrialized was…… Japan/India/China.
The first Asian country to become industrialized was Japan.
The capitalists/landlords/workers organized themselves as trade unions to fight for their rights.
The workers organized themselves as trade unions to fight for their rights.
The victory of the British over the French/Dutch/Spanish in the Carnatic Wars shattered French/Dutch/Spanish dreams of colonizing India.
The victory of the British over the French in the Carnatic Wars shattered French dreams of colonizing India.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
- Manual labour was replaced by the machines during the Industrial Revolution.
- Small-scale production flourished during the Industrial Revolution.
- Capitalists were the have-nots.
Correct: Workers were the have-nots.
- There was a wide gulf between the capitalists and the workers.
- Capitalism is a set of economic theories based on the belief that the government should control the main industries.
Correct: Socialism is a set of economic theories based on the belief that the government should control the main industries.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
Explain the term ‘domestic system.
Domestic system was the system of the production of goods by crafts persons and artisans at home with the help of their family members using simple tools. The merchants supplied raw materials to the artisans and sold the finished products.
Define the term ‘Industrial Revolution’.
By the middle of the 18th century a series of remarkable inventions led to an economic revolution in England known as the Industrial Revolution. It transformed the entire economy and society of 18th century England and other countries subsequently.
This great and radical transformation in industry which fundamentally altered all the methods, techniques and organization of production and distribution is known as the Industrial Revolution.
What is meant by colonialism ?
Colonialism is a policy by which one nation acquires control over another country, either partly or wholly. The conquered country becomes the colony of the conquering nation, known as the colonial power.
Give one example of each of the following:
(a) a colony
(b) a colonial power.
(b) Great British
What do you understand by imperialism ?
Imperialism implies systematic extraction of raw materials, captive markets, shifting of industrial development, control over financial institutions.
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. In the context of the Industrial Revolution answer the following questions:
Mention the three important features of the Industrial Revolution.
The main features of the Industrial Revolution were as follows:
- The domestic system of production was replaced by the factory system.
- Manual labour was replaced by machines.
- Small-scale production gave way to large-scale production.
Give any four important reasons to explain why the Industrial Revolution started in England.
The important reasons that explain why the Industrial Revolution started in England were:
- Surplus Capital – Economic growth and an increased overseas trade led to an accumulation of enormous wealth in England. This surplus capital was used in the development of new industries and setting up of new factories.
- Stable Government – Political stability in England provided conditions that were favourable for economic growth.
- Agricultural Revolution – There was an agricultural revolution that preceded the Industrial Revolution. This was due to consolidation of land holdings through the enclosures and improvement in agricultural methods, such as, alternating between fallow and tillage land, which increased England’s agricultural output.
- Availability of Cheap Labour – The mechanization of agriculture led to large scale unemployment of fanners who migrated to towns and cities in search of jobs, and were ready to work in factories at low wages.
The Enclosure Movement had led to the takeover of land by rich landlords and so the takeover of land by rich landlords and so the small landless fanners also migrated to towns and cities in search of emploment in factories. The provided a readily available pool of cheap labour.
- Availability of Coal and Iron – Coal and iron — the two essential resources necessary for the growth of industries were available in abundance in northern England. Many industrial towns and cities were located in this region.
Briefly discuss the spread of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution that began in England was not a single event but a continuing process which went through different phases and spread to different countries at different times.
Mechanized industries were introduced in France, Germany, USA and Japan. Germany made rapid progress after its unification (1870) and became one of the leading industrial nations in Europe. Britain gradually lost its lead by the end of the 19th century.
The USA also surged ahead of Britain and made major progress in the iron and steel industry. It soon became one of the leading industrial nations of the world. Industrialization in Russia was If very slow but picked up after the Russian Revolution (1917).Japan was the first Asian country to become industrialized.
2.In the context of the economic impact of the Industrial Revolution, answer the following questions:
What effect did the Industrial Revolution have on the domestic system of production ?
The Industrial Revolution led to the destruction of the domestic system of production. Workers went to work in factories and machine-made goods were manufactured on a large scale. The work was divided between people according to their ability and capability.
How did it create a wide gap between the rich and the poor?
The Industrial Revolution led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of the capitalists—a few rich people who owned the means of production (capital). The vast majority of workers were employed by the capitalists in their factories and worked ‘ under them for wages. The workers were exploited by the capitalists and lived in poverty and misery. There was a wide gulf between the rich capitalists and the poor workers. The capitalists were thus the haves, while the workers were the have-nots.
What effects did it have on trade and commerce ?
Industrial Revolution led to large scale productions which led to the expansion of trade and commerce. Surplus goods were sold to other countries. Increasing profits made the industrialized nations rich and prosperous. Trade also expanded because steamships were being used, which were superior to the earlier ships.
As production increased further, these nations began to look for new markets for the sale of finished products. This in turn led to competition among the European nations to acquire colonies in distant lands. These colonies would be used not only as ready markets for manufactured goods but also as constant suppliers of raw material for the industries.
With reference to the following points explain the social effects of the Industrial Revolution:
(a) Social inequality (b)Harsh living conditions of workers (c) Exploitation of workers.
Social inequality — The economic disparity between the rich capitalists and the poor workers led to gross social inequalities. There was a wide gulf between the social status of the capitalists and the workers.
Harsh living conditions of workers — The Industrial Revolution led to the migration of people from the villages to the industrial towns in search of jobs. Cities grew rapidly and without any proper planning. As the population grew, the cities became overcrowded and people were forced to live in crowded homes in squalid surroundings and without proper sanitation facilities. A large number of slums sprang up. Black smoke filled the air and in the absence of basic amenities, the health of the workers broke down. Disease and epidemics took a heavy toll of human lives.
Exploitation of workers — Workers had no job security and they could be dismissed at any time. They worked on very low wages and under extremely harsh conditions. The capitalists exploited the workers by forcing them to work for almost sixteen hours a day, without a break. They were not allowed to go on strike.Women and small children were employed in large numbers in deep and dangerous coal mines. They worked from dawn to dusk on extremely low wages. No compensation was paid to workers for injury or death due to accident in mines and factories. The extremely stressful working and living conditions led to a decline of moral values among the workers. Life became a struggle for survival, community bonds broke down and people tried to forget their miseries by drinking and gambling.
With reference to the Industrial Revolution explain the following:
(a) The basic features of socialism
(b) The growth of trade unions
(c) The rise of imperialism
Socialism was a reaction to the evils of capitalism. Socialism is a system under which there is no private ownership of capital. People in a socialist set-up would not be divided into rich and poor classes. The means of production (capital) is owned by society as a whole and everybody would work and share equally the profits, i.e., the fruits of their labour. Thus, exploitation would be wiped out and a classless society based on economic and social equality would be established.
The ruthless exploitation of the workers by the capitalists led to protests by the workers. The united and organized themselves into Trade unions to fight for their rights and better working conditions. The trade unions faced strong resistance from the employers. In many countries, the clash between the trade unions and the capitalists led to bloodshed.
The struggle of the trade unions was long and arduous. The vast majority of workers did not have the right to vote.
The determination and efforts of the trade unions eventually bore fruit. The government passed several factory laws to improve the conditions of the workers and grant them certain rights.
The Industrial Revolution led to a scramble for overseas possessions. This led to a wave of colonial expansion in the 19th century. There was a movement to acquire more colonies and expand empires. Imperialism implies systematic extraction of raw materials, captive markets, shifting of industrial development, control over financial institutions.
G Picture Study:
This is a picture of a machine invented during the Industrial Revolution
(a) Identify the machine in the picture.
Ans. Steam Engine.
(b) Who invented it ?
Ans. James watt.
(c) Which industry did it revolutionize ?
Ans. Coal and Iron Industry.
(d) Mention any four impacts of the Industrial Revolution ?
The Impacts of the Industrial revolution were:
- Increase in Agriculture production — The Industrial revolution saw improvements in the agricultural processes. The grain yields in England rose by 50%. The Improved yield was the result of several factors such as improved techniques and better quality seeds.
- Growth in population — Between 1800 to 1851, the population of britian grew by almost hundred percent. However, the population of new Industrial cities grew even more.
- Emergence of Factory System — The Industrial Revolution led to the destruction of the domestic system of production. Workers went to work in factories and machine-made goods were manufactured on a large scale. The work was divided between people according to their ability and capability.
- Large scale production — The emergence of the factory system and the use of machines greatly increased the productivity of good. The use of machines and increased production led to the decrease in the production cost as well as standardisation of the quality of the materials produced