ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Geography Voyage – Model Test Paper 1
A. Fill in the blanks
- In a grid system of a topo sheet, the lines that run vertically are called easting
- In India, 60 cities have been selected as Smart Cities
- The collision of the earth’s plates caused the earthquake in Nepal in April 2015.
- Brain drain is also known as human capital flight.
- Urban areas generally have a higher population density.
B. Match the following columns
C. Choose the correct answer
1. The green area in a topo sheet contains
- barren land
- cultivated land
2. One of the advantages to the migrant’s home country is
- loss of skilled labour
- increased foreign exchange
- fall in demand of certain goods and services
- political uncertainly
3. In 1986, an accidental explosion at a nuclear plant at in the former USSR caused radiation to spread across Ukraine and other regions, killing over 12,000 people.
- St Petersburg
4. Which of these is a part of the demographic structure of a population ?
- Age composition
- Sex ratio
- Rural and urban populations
- All of these
5. Migrants willing to happily take up unskilled jobs are known as
- cheap labour
- technical labour
- agricultural labourer
D. State whether the following are true or false
1. Contour lines are drawn at fixed intervals.
2. Slums are usually located on land not owned by the slum dwellers.
3. An adverse sex ratio shows the high position given to women in society.
An adverse sex ratio shows the low position given to women in society.
4. Immigrants don’t bring rich cultural diversity and traditions to their new country.
Immigrants bring rich cultural diversity and traditions to their r new country.
5. West Bengal is most vulnerable to floods.
Bihar is most vulnerable to floods.
E. Answer the following questions in brief
What is a saddle? Draw a diagram to show a saddle.
A saddle is a shallow depression at a high elevation between two peaks or ridges. The depression is formed by streams or by glaciers flowing close to each other. A saddle need not have a river or stream flowing through it.
What is primitive migration?
Primitive migration is one in which people respond to an unfavourable environment by leaving it for more favourable one.
Briefly mention the aspects of urban life which serve as the basis for the smart cities.
The different aspects of urban life which are normally the basis of smart cities are economy, environment, governance, human capital, international outreach, mobility and transportation, public management, social cohesion, technology, and urban planning.
Mention any two factors that cause population growth in a developed country.
In the developed countries of the world, the population increased earlier due to :
- Economic growth and prosperity as a result of industrialization.
- Improved medical techniques and health care facilities.
- Immigration because of better job opportunities and better living conditions.
What should people do in the event of a nuclear disaster ?
In the event of a nuclear disaster, one should close all the doors and windows of their houses and remain indoors as radiation does not penetrate solid structures. People should not go out until the government makes arrangements for their rescue.
F. Answer the following questions in one or two paragraphs.
What are the different factors that determine the location and the type of settlements?
Many factors determine the location and the type of settlements:
- Settlements grow in areas that are flat and where the land is cultivable. Settlements do not grow on steep hillsides or marshy lands.
- Settlements grow in places where water is available in plenty for both agricultural and domestic purposes. Settlements, therefore, also grow on the confluence of rivers or the banks of rivers.
- Settlements also thrive on a plateau because of the flat surface of the plateau and the availability of land for cultivation.
- They develop and grow in places where the climate is- suitable or pleasant to live in. Extremely hot, cold, wet or dry places are not attractive settlement sites.
- Settlements are formed where there are prospects for employment. Mines and industries in the area are potential sources of employment and encourage growth of settlements. Such places are usually near places of abundant raw materials for the growth of industries.
- They develop in places that are easily accessible by various kinds of roads, rivers, and railway lines. Easy access to and from the settlements will allow movement of people and goods from one place to another.
What are the causes of brain drain ?
Causes of Brain Drain :
- Push factors — They include economic factors such as the inability to find suitably paying jobs in a person’s own country, poverty or no prospect of improving one’s standard of living, political instability that causes uncertainity, political favouritism, and religious and social discrimination.
- Pull factors — They include higher income and more comfortable lifestyles in the new country, better economic prospects, better educational opportunities including training and research, greater chances of promotion without partiality or discrimination, a liberal and stable government, better working conditions and medical facilities.
What makes Bihar the most flood-prone state among all north Indian states ?
Bihar is the most flood-prone state among all north Indian states because many of the rivers flowing through Bihar, such as the Kosi, Bagmati and Gandak, flow through the high mountainous region of Nepal, before crossing very small distances and rapidly reaching the plains of Bihar, making them far more forceful. When it rains heavily in Nepal, the extra water enters these river channels and rushes into the plains of Bihar. As the rivers break their banks and overflow into the adjoining areas, large area of land and thousands of people and livestock are affected. More than 76% of the population in Northern Bihar live under the threat of floods
Explain the different types of migrations.
There are different types of migration :
- Internal migration—People move from one place to another within the country.
- External migration — People move to a new country or continent.
- Temporary migration — It includes migration which is annual, seasonal or daily. For example, people may move to lower regions from mountains during harsh winter months.
- Emigration — When a person leaves his or her own country and moves to another. The person who emigrates is known as an emigrant from his or her own country. For example, when a person leaves India and goes to Canada to settle there, that person is said to have emigrated from India to Canada.
- Immigration — When a person arrives in a new country after leaving his or her own country. For example, when a person arrives in Canada from India that person is said to have immigrated to Canada and is known as an immigrant in Canada.
Write the positive as well as negative effects of under population.
Impace of Under population
Under population has several positive effects :
- There are sufficient employment opportunities for everyone.
- There are fewer instances of overcrowding.
- There are lower levels of poverty.
- There are adequate educational, medical and other facilities to meet everyone’s needs.
- There are sufficient natural resources to meet the requirements of the population.
- There is lesser pressure on the environment, and hence, lower rates of environmental degradation.
However, there are also some negative effects of under population :
- The lack of adequate labour leads to low productivity.
- In some instances, a higher proportion of the population is either too young or too old to work.
- There are lesser taxpayers, leading to low income for the government.
- There are not enough people to develop the natural resources of the country.
G Picture study
This is the picture of a smart city.
What is shown in the photograph?
A smart city is shown in the photograph. It is an urban region which is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
Mention any three essential infrastructure requirement of a smart city.
In a smart city, information technology (IT) is the core infrastructure and the basis of providing essential services to all residents. Other essential infrastructure, apart from IT in a smart city, would include :
- Proper sanitation and waste management systems.
- Round the clock electricity supply.
- Round the clock and adequate water supply.
- Efficient urban mobility and public transport with a network of good, well-connected roads.
- Well-designed and affordable housing which even people in the low-income brackets can buy.
- Good governance, particularly e-governance where everything and everyone is connected digitally.
- Sustainable environment with more than adequate green cover.
Mention any five smart cities of India?
Smart Cities: Hyderabad, Vadodara, Kochi, Visakhapatnam, Guwahati, Raipur, Bilaspur, Durgapur, Indore, Gwalior, Rourkela, Jabalpur and Bhopal.